|Medium:||etching and drypoint|
|Size:||131 x 221 mm|
|Signed:||butterfly at upper left|
|No. of States:||2|
|Catalogues:||K.416; M.414; W.268|
|Impressions taken from this plate (16)|
Joseph Pennell (1860-1926) saw the show at Dunthorne's gallery and was deeply impressed, as his wife recorded :
12: Whistler's presscuttings, Glasgow University Library, PC11 p. 22.
14: ibid., p. 86.
An impression was lent by Walter Steuben Carter (1824-1904) to the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893; Charles Lang Freer (1856-1919) lent to the Grolier Club in 1890 () and another was lent by Bryan Lathrop (1844-1916) to the show organised by the Caxton Club in 1900 (). 16 In 1899 Whistler himself exhibited an impression at the ISSPG, of which he was President (possibly ). 17
Howard Mansfield (1849-1938) lent one to the first Annual Exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1902, and to an exhibition in Boston in 1904. 18 This was among the several Memorial Exhibitions after Whistler's death. Exhibitions followed at the Grolier Club in New York in 1904, in Paris in 1905; in London, lent by H.R.H. the Princess Victoria also in 1905 (possibly ); and in Rotterdam, lent by John Charles Sigismund Day (1826-1908), in 1906. 19
SALES & COLLECTORS
At this point Whistler turned his attention to the American dealers, starting with H. Wunderlich & Co. of New York. They handled several impressions, including a fine second state on Asian paper, that was inscribed, probably by Whistler, with a tiny 'o' on the verso, possibly as a mark of quality (, stock no. a 20455). Another second state, was inscribed '5. Mar. 6', and 'For Wunderlich' (). This may have been the 'later state' sold to Wunderlich's on 3 April 1890. 22 A third, numbered and dated '7. Mar. 6' was also sold to Wunderlich's (, stock no. a 25257).
On 21 January and 26 July 1891 another print firm, Edmund F. Deprez (1851-1915) of Deprez & Gutekunst, bought impressions. 26 They sold one to the Königl. Kupferstichkabinett Dresden in the following year (). Whistler's own attempts to sell direct to galleries did not always work. He sent Zaandam to South Kensington Museum on 2 July 1890 but they returned it on 21 August. 27
However, he was successful in selling directly to collectors. John Postle Heseltine (1843-1929) bought one directly from the artist in March 1890. 28 Charles Lang Freer (1856-1919) bought one, reproduced above () in the spring of 1890, as did Howard Mansfield (1849-1938). 29 On 12 July 1890 Mansfield explained, 'The second impression of the Zaandam is so different from the first, and both are so interesting, that I have decided to keep both.' 30 This shows the effectiveness of Whistler's strategy, with new states, paper and ink appealing to collectors, who would then buy additional impressions.
Further private sales took place in 1891: the French Symbolist poet, Whistler's friend Stéphane Mallarmé (1842-1898), bought one on 21 February 1891, and an American collector, Levi Ziegler Leiter (1834-1904), bought another on 22 August. 31
At auction, for once prices equalled Whistler's own prices. An impression from the collection of the late Joshua Hutchinson Hutchinson (ca 1829 - d.1891) was bought at Sotheby’s, 3 March 1892 (lot 343) by Robert Dunthorne (b. ca 1851) for £10.0.0. Dunthorne continued to get impressions of Zaandam from Whistler as well, one on 24 December 1902 and another on 20 April 1903 - shortly before Whistler's death - for £12.12.0 each. 32 At that time there was still one left in his studio, which was bequeathed to Rosalind Birnie Philip (1873-1958) (, reproduced below).
23: 9 April, 23 June 1890, GUW #13064.
24: GUW #13239.
26: In 21 January-27 June 1891, GUW #13070.
27: GUW #13044.